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CULTURAL SUSTAINABILITY Sustainability is defined as the ability to sustain or continue. The two concepts have been intertwined within social and political domains, and as such, have become one of the more important concepts of sustainability. First mentioned in 1995, cultural sustainability also presents viable options within the realm of social policy, providing solutions to sustainable development issues. Cultural Sustainability can be regarded as a fundamental issue, even a precondition to be met on the path towards sustainable development. However, the theoretical and conceptual understanding of cultural sustainability within the general frames of Sustainable Development remains vague and consequently, the role of culture is poorly implemented in the environmental, as well as political and social policy. Determining the impact of Cultural Sustainability is found by investigating the concept of culture in the context of Sustainable development, through multidisciplinary approaches and analyses. This means examining the best practices for bringing culture into political and social policy as well as practical domains and developing means and indicators for assessing the impacts of culture on Sustainable Development. Cultural sustainability has always been categorized under the social pillar of the three pillars of sustainability, but with recent developments within this field, considerations are being made in order to make Cultural Sustainability its own pillar, due to its growing importance within social, political,environmental, and economic spheres. The importance of cultural sustainability lies within its influential power over the people, as decisions that are made within the context of society are heavily weighed by the beliefs of that society.
SOCIO-POLITICAL LANDSCAPES Culture has an overwhelming effect on social, economic and political planning, but as of yet, has failed to be incorporated into social and political policy on a grand scale, however, certain policies regarding both policy and politics have managed to be implemented into some conventions that are implemented on a global scale.Culture is found everywhere within a society, from the relics of previous generations to the accumulated values of a society. The culture within society can be divided into two, equally important subtopics that aid in the description of cultural specific characterizations. These categories, as defined by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) are "Material" and "Immaterial". Material objects such as shrines, paintings, buildings, landscapes and other humanistic formations act as a physical representation of the culture in that area.Although they have little social and political utility, they serve as physical landmarks and culturally dependant objects whose meaning is created and maintained within the context of that society. The accumulation of these cultural characteristics are what measures a society's cultural integrity, and these characteristics are inherently capable of transforming landscapes of political, social, & environment nature via the influence that these values and historical remains have on the population. Little success has come with the implementations of cultural policy within the context of politics due to a lack of empirical information regarding the topic of cultural sustainability. The Immaterial category contains more socially and politically applicable characteristics such as practices, traditions, aesthetics, knowledge, expressions etc. These characteristics embody social and political utility through education of people, housing, social justice, Human Rights, employment and more. These values contribute to the wellbeing of a society through the use of collective thinking and ideas i.e. culture. Culture also presents more room for expansion on its effects on a society. Specifically, creativity, respect, empathy, and other practices are being used to create social integration and also to create a sense of "self" in the world.
Convention implementation Implementation of policy on a global scale has had little success, but enough to show an increasing interest in the topic of Cultural Sustainability. The conventions that have been implemented, have done so on a large scale, involving multiple countries, across most continents. UNESCO has been responsible for the vast majority of these conventions, maintaining that cultural sustainability and cultural heritage are a strong cornerstone of society.One of the more relevant conventions created in 2003 is the "Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage" which proclaims that culture must be protected against all adversarial combatants. This safeguard was implemented as an understanding that culture guarantees sustainability. Implementing policy based on cultural history is in the process of becoming a widely talked about subject and holds that cultures will be able to thrive in the context of both present and future. Conventions made by UNESCO regarding cultural preservation and sustainability are surrounding the promotion of cultural diversity, which means multiple cultures and ideas within one grand culture. Cultural heritage Cultural memorabilia and artifacts from the history of a culture maintain an important role in modern society as they are kept as relics and shrines in order to remember the stories, knowledge, skills, and methods of ancestors and learn invaluable lessons from the past. Today, cultures use libraries, art exhibits, and museums as a placeholder for these important objects and other culturally significant artifacts. Not only are these objects revered, but the buildings themselves are oftentimes a symbol of cultural integrity to the community which it belongs. Linking with the other pillars of sustainability, the biggest barrier to cultural sustainability is funding. Economic sustainability relies on a number of systems with goals to ensure economic prosperity by eliminating spending where it is not needed. Cultural buildings such as museums oftentimes fail to receive the funding it needs to continue the preservation of culturally significant artifacts.


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PORTRAIT PAINTING - small scope.

Artists generally begin with drawings. Drawing of the image which could be regarded as sketch. These do not supersede photographs, but are generally preferred as the very act of drawing requires the artist to study and understand what he is seeing. Nonetheless, there can be problems. Some drawings will come off straight away, but many only after a great deal of effort, and on occasions nothing seems to give a likeness. For that reason, some painters, particularly the more experienced, begin immediately on the oil portrait. By moving from general appearance to telling details they avoid producing a photographically correct but facile/bland/unilluminating facsimile of the subject.

Some general hints:

1. Use the appropriate medium in preliminary work: pencils for a small and/or detailed sketch, chalks or pastel for the broader sketch.

2. Ensure the lighting helps to give strength, solidity and character to the face. It is very difficult to capture a full face likeness if the lighting and fe…
THE ART OF CALABASH DECORATION IN NIGERIA Process of decorating calabash - decoration could be by painting, carving or scorching. - calabash is prepared. - designs are determined. - sketches are made. Calabash is the term used for artifacts made from the hard shell of a fruit in the gourd family "Lagenaria siceraria." Once the calabash is dried and hollowed out it can be used for serving or storing food. It can also be used as an ink pot, cosmetic container and by market women as a money box. Aside from the use as containers, calabashes are frequently adapted as musical instruments such as the flute, violin, harp, xylophone and the rattle (which is made with seeds inside or with cowries/beads on the outside). THE name, calabash is a derivative of the French word, ‘Calebasse’. It is defined as a tropical American tree (Cresenctia cujete) of the bignonia family or its large gourd-like fruits. Calabash and gourd are often used interchangeably. The calabash is simply the dr…


What is Drawing

This simple is the art of using lines to create, depict or represent images or objects in a visual form.
Therefore, drawing is a visual art, it must be visible i.e one must see. The term drawing is applied to works that vary greatly in technique. It has been understood in different ways at different times and is difficult to define. During the Renaissance the term 'disegno' implied drawing both as a technique to be distinguished from colouring and also as the creative idea made visible in the preliminary sketch.

The Shorter Oxford Dictionary defines drawing as:

    'the formation of a line by drawing some tracing instrument from point to point of a surface; representation by lines; delineation as distinguished from painting...the arrangement of lines which determine form.'

Despite this insistence on the formation of line and the implied lack of colour, few would deny that a work formed by dot…