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Basic Tips on Writing a Statement of Problem Research Proposal

Research is that intelligent guess that comes to one’s mind when a problem evolved, a methodical exploratory procedure employed to increase current knowledge by discovering new ideas. Divided into two general categories: (1) Basic research: This is an analysis meant for consuming an increasing scientific knowledge. (2) Applied research: The effort meant for consuming basic research for solving problems or developing new processes, products, or techniques. An important step in any research is to detect and define the research problem i.e. what (political, scientific or depending on the field of study) the researcher wants to resolve and what questions the researcher wishes to answer. The Researcher’s Problem A research problem may be defined as an area of concern, a gap in the existing knowledge, or a deviancy in the norm or standard that points to the need for further understanding and investigation which could serve as a documentary for the future purposes and or record for the upco…
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The northern part of Chad lies in the Sahara Desert where the highest mountains in the Sahara are located, the TIBESTI Mountains (3,415m), which are volcanic. Covering a large area not far from the northern borders with Libya and Niger this region is very rich in rock art sites. Most of the art here may date from between 9,000 years ago and 4,000 years ago while some of the large animal engravings may date back to 12,000 years or more. Like much of the Sahara, the Tibesti experienced dramatic climate change during this period resulting in an influx of wildlife and human populations from the Middle East. The majority of the rock art here dates from these times before the inhabitants were forced to leave their lands and move to the Nile Valley or other areas with more water. To the south-east of these mountains is another mountain range known as the Ennedi. It is an ancient eroded sandstone plateau around 35,000 square kilometres in extent. This is another rich rock art region although …


INTRODUCTION Painting is a section in the art that is suitable for the documentation of actions, moods, events, occurrence and several activities that evolved throughout the lifespan of man, just like photography is known as a record of events so does the painting. Knowing fully well that this discipline started from the time of cave art, concentration is mainly on the subject-matter, materials, composition, medium, quality, quantity, genre, a given period of time, and particular art school are to be considered for the purpose of this study. Artworks of graduates in the painting section of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria from the 1990’s to the year 2000 are analyzed below: 1990 Duke Asidere; titled fabric offcuts as a collage painting medium as an experiment. The subject-matter in this artwork are basically human postures such as female figures with naked breasts, some were carrying basket on their heads, while some were just walking the male figures were probably in a movement from so…


CULTURAL SUSTAINABILITY Sustainability is defined as the ability to sustain or continue. The two concepts have been intertwined within social and political domains, and as such, have become one of the more important concepts of sustainability. First mentioned in 1995, cultural sustainability also presents viable options within the realm of social policy, providing solutions to sustainable development issues. Cultural Sustainability can be regarded as a fundamental issue, even a precondition to be met on the path towards sustainable development. However, the theoretical and conceptual understanding of cultural sustainability within the general frames of Sustainable Development remains vague and consequently, the role of culture is poorly implemented in the environmental, as well as political and social policy. Determining the impact of Cultural Sustainability is found by investigating the concept of culture in the context of Sustainable…
THE ART OF CALABASH DECORATION IN NIGERIA Process of decorating calabash - decoration could be by painting, carving or scorching. - calabash is prepared. - designs are determined. - sketches are made. Calabash is the term used for artifacts made from the hard shell of a fruit in the gourd family "Lagenaria siceraria." Once the calabash is dried and hollowed out it can be used for serving or storing food. It can also be used as an ink pot, cosmetic container and by market women as a money box. Aside from the use as containers, calabashes are frequently adapted as musical instruments such as the flute, violin, harp, xylophone and the rattle (which is made with seeds inside or with cowries/beads on the outside). THE name, calabash is a derivative of the French word, ‘Calebasse’. It is defined as a tropical American tree (Cresenctia cujete) of the bignonia family or its large gourd-like fruits. Calabash and gourd are often used interchangeably. The calabash is simply the dr…

PORTRAIT PAINTING - small scope.

Artists generally begin with drawings. Drawing of the image which could be regarded as sketch. These do not supersede photographs, but are generally preferred as the very act of drawing requires the artist to study and understand what he is seeing. Nonetheless, there can be problems. Some drawings will come off straight away, but many only after a great deal of effort, and on occasions nothing seems to give a likeness. For that reason, some painters, particularly the more experienced, begin immediately on the oil portrait. By moving from general appearance to telling details they avoid producing a photographically correct but facile/bland/unilluminating facsimile of the subject.

Some general hints:

1. Use the appropriate medium in preliminary work: pencils for a small and/or detailed sketch, chalks or pastel for the broader sketch.

2. Ensure the lighting helps to give strength, solidity and character to the face. It is very difficult to capture a full face likeness if the lighting and fe…


What is Drawing

This simple is the art of using lines to create, depict or represent images or objects in a visual form.
Therefore, drawing is a visual art, it must be visible i.e one must see. The term drawing is applied to works that vary greatly in technique. It has been understood in different ways at different times and is difficult to define. During the Renaissance the term 'disegno' implied drawing both as a technique to be distinguished from colouring and also as the creative idea made visible in the preliminary sketch.

The Shorter Oxford Dictionary defines drawing as:

    'the formation of a line by drawing some tracing instrument from point to point of a surface; representation by lines; delineation as distinguished from painting...the arrangement of lines which determine form.'

Despite this insistence on the formation of line and the implied lack of colour, few would deny that a work formed by dot…